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What means bash file testing flags?

bash if flags

This entry is reference copy of this great StackOverflow answer.

Bash File Testing

-b filename - Block special file
-c filename - Special character file
-d directoryname - Check for directory Existence
-e filename - Check for file existence, regardless of type (node, directory, socket, etc.)
-f filename - Check for regular file existence not a directory
-G filename - Check if file exists and is owned by effective group ID
-G filename set-group-id - True if file exists and is set-group-id
-k filename - Sticky bit
-L filename - Symbolic link
-O filename - True if file exists and is owned by the effective user id
-r filename - Check if file is a readable
-S filename - Check if file is socket
-s filename - Check if file is nonzero size
-u filename - Check if file set-user-id bit is set
-w filename - Check if file is writable
-x filename - Check if file is executable

How to use:

#!/bin/bash
file=./file
if [ -e "$file" ]; then
    echo "File exists"
else 
    echo "File does not exist"
fi

test expression can be negated by using the ! operator

#!/bin/bash
file=./file
if [ ! -e "$file" ]; then
    echo "File does not exist"
else 
    echo "File exists"
fi